Introduction: fruit and veg access and availability during COVID-19 –
By Amber Wheeler
Here we will be looking at the impact of COVID-19 on fruit and vegetable supply chains, and how the pandemic affects UK production (large and small-scale) and people’s access to fruit and veg, particularly in the most vulnerable groups.
Fruit and vegetables are a major part of a healthy diet – government dietary advice says they should make up 40% of what an adult eats (by weight of consumed food). They are also the biggest marker of dietary inequality where we see the greatest difference between the diets of the rich and the poor. With the possible exception of oily fish, fruit and veg are the only food groups that the government wants us to be eating more of, to improve our dietary health and reduce the burden of diet-related illness on the NHS.
Although our levels of self-sufficiency in fruit have remained similar for the last 30 years, our self-sufficiency in veg has declined significantly. Thirty years ago, 83% of the veg we ate came from the UK, and now it is only 53%. 58% of our veg imports now come from Spain and the Netherlands and 38% of our fruit imports from Spain, South Africa and the Netherlands. Declining self-sufficiency is not considered to be a concern in a context of frictionless trade.
During this time supply chains in the UK have also consolidated, with large-scale production being processed and packed in industrial pack houses and transported to centralised warehouses for supermarket distribution. The infrastructure for small-scale horticulture and agriculture has, at the same time, diminished.
In 2018 the Food Foundation helped launch the Fruit and Vegetable Alliance, made up of a diverse group of producer organisations who are unified by a desire to get the nation producing and eating more fruit and vegetables. The Food Foundation continues to support the Fruit and Vegetable Alliance.
The COVID-19 crisis is testing the current system and we’ll be tracking its impact, following the availability and accessibility of fruit and veg in the UK, as well as labour developments and the quality of jobs in large and small-scale horticulture. We’ll also be reflecting on people’s experiences of accessing fruit and vegetables. We’ll be monitoring movement in these areas and watching in real-time to see what lessons can be learnt to inform the future development of fruit and vegetable supply chains – ones that that best meet the needs of all people in the UK.